Quid Pro Quo
Quid pro quo occurs when a character or the audience mistakes someone or something for someone or something else.
A raissoneur is a character - usually a supporting character - who helps the audience keep track of the values of the story.
Recognition occurs when a character finds out what we (the audience) already know.
The resolution in a film is the solution to the problem and main tension of the story. It often explains what has happened, what will happen, and shows a new status quo.
Revelation puts the audience into a superior position, which translates to a feeling of participation.
A reversal (or twist) is a surprising, yet explainable and motivated change in the direction of the action - either within a scene, a sequence, or in the overall story line.
Often used to reveal things for comic or dramatic effect, a REVERSE ANGLE could be described as a counter POV shot. Essentially, the script implies that the camera comes around 180 degrees to get a shot from the polar opposite side.
In film, rhythm is determined by the development of the tension and the movement of the action. Each scene and each sequence has its own rhythm, it's pulse, it's tempo, it's pacing. In the finished film both rhythm and tempo get expressed not only in the actions of the characters, but in the shot breakdown, in the editing, and with sound and music.
From the moment a dramatic situation that contains a serious conflict has been created, rising action begins and continues to build until the character finds a way to solve the conflict. Once one particular conflict is resolved, a new obstacle is presented, creating it’s own tension and new series of rising actions begin.
Often called a slug line, the scene heading occurs at the start of every scene, stating whether the scene is inside (INT.) or outside (EXT.), the specific location (FRANK’S APARTMENT - KITCHEN), and refers to the time of day (NIGHT). Here is the full example: INT. FRANK’S APARTMENT - KITCHEN - NIGHT.
Scenes are units of action. Each scene takes place in one location at one time and in real time. And in a screenplay, a scene must push the story forward and/or reveal character.
Sequences are thematic units of action, each one usually between 10 to 15 minutes that has its own specific tension and an event around which it is focussed.
Sometimes called a Master Scene Heading, the slug line is in all CAPS and occurs at the start of every scene, stating whether the scene is inside (INT.) or outside (EXT.), the specific location (FRANK’S APARTMENT - KITCHEN), and refers to the time of day (NIGHT). For example: INT. FRANK’S APARTMENT - KITCHEN - NIGHT.
SMASH CUT TO:
A smash cut is a stylistic and especially sharp transition, often used to convey destruction or quick emotional changes.
The space of the frame is split into two, three, or more frames, each with its own subject. Usually the events shown in each section of the split are simultaneous, like two people in the middle of a phone conversation. However, split screen can also be used to flashbacks or two separate events occurring simultaneously.
The status quo is the existing state of affairs of the main character daily life and his/her world.
A stereotype is an oversimplified image or idea of a particular type of person or thing. And the screenwriter should avoid stereotyping characters. Blacks are not all comical, Native Americans not all drunks, Italians not all mobsters, Hispanics not all in gangs, Muslims are not all terrorists, etc.
Stock footage shows footage of events in history from other films and/or television broadcasts.
Storyboards are illustrations or images that are organized and displayed in a sequence for the purpose of pre-visualizing a film, animation, or interactive media.
Style is a distinctive manner in which the means of expression are used for a specific purpose.
Subplot characters have an action line that is - on the plot level - connected with the main conflict, either as a part of the counteraction or as a parallel “foil” or supporting action of the protagonist’s conflict. In other words, subplot characters either help, initiate, complicate, or fight the hero’s efforts.
Subtext is what the character is really saying between the lines, and it is revealed by character’s actions and reactions.
The effect of showing one image over another. Always typed in capital letters.
Surprise is an unexpected occurrence in the story: an encounter, attack, change of mind or circumstance, that creates a feeling of astonishment, wonder, or amazement as it takes the viewer unaware and without warning. It is usually preceded by a contrasting “preparation” scene that shows the character unsuspecting, unaware, careless, or confident.
Symbolic characters are one-dimensional, usually personifying only one quality or idea, such as love, wisdom, mercy, or justice. Symbolic characters are often found in non-realistic worlds: in myth, fantasy, sci-fi, superhero, and comic-book stories.
Sympathy occurs when the audience has feelings of pity or sorrow for a character’s misfortune. Sympathetic characters help to engage an audience’s participation with the story; however, we don’t have to feel sympathy in order to care about a character.